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InfraMation 2002 (262 pages) - Table of Contents

Watt are you sinking?
Bob Rogers, ITC - Boston
This paper illustrates the effects of using properly designed heat sinks. Through the use of infrared thermography, surprising results are obtained, which prompt the question, "How small can I make an efficient heat sink?"

Infrared applications in the petrochemical refinery
Robert Bonin, Motiva, Inc., Port Arthur, Texas
IR Thermography is used as a relatively new and highly successful predictive tool in the Motiva Refineries. This paper discusses how new potential applications are explored and evaluated. Particular focus is on the determination of cost avoidance potential for each application.

Don't let the RAT bite you!
Mikael Cronholm, ITC Sweden
This thermographer/scientist explores some of the misunderstandings that thermographers have encountered regarding "reflected apparent temperature" (RAT), and sets them straight. He then gives you a good look at what could happen to your results if you let the RAT bite you.

Can your Infrared camera find every electrical problem?
Joe DeMonte, ITC, Boston
This paper deals with the problem of inspecting low emissivity surfaces on electrical equipment-how highly reflective materials affect a thermographer's ability to find minor temperature rises-and what you can do about it.

Clinical assessment of thermography as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in horse practice
Shadwa Embaby, Commercial Advisory Group, Egypt
The use of thermography as a predictive medicine tool is explored in this paper. It describes how periodic scanning of a horse provides the opportunity to study different trends in body temperature and to predict and treat injuries before they lead to serious problems.

The use of infrared thermal imaging to identify gas hydrate in sediment cores
Kathryn Ford, Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island
The dissociation of gas hydrate in sediment cores is an endothermic process, so sediment containing hydrate is characteristically colder than the surrounding sediment. This paper explores the potential of IR thermography to the analysis of marine sediment deposits.

Keys to a good inspection program
Mark B. Goff, P.E., Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga Tennessee
A seasoned predictive maintenance thermographer reviews the PdM thermography program used in substations at Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and how, through a clear understanding the key elements of their program, other industries can benefit from the same approach.

How ultrasound and infrared work together to enhance leak inspection
Mark Goodman, UE Systems, Inc., Elmsford, New York
An ultrasound expert, investigates the union of infrared and ultrasound diagnostics for generic pressure and vacuum leaks; steam trap and valve leak inspection; heat exchanger and condenser leaks and air infiltration leaks.

Integrating infrared and airborne ultrasound
James M. Hall, SDT North America Ltd., Woodstock, Georgia
This paper demonstrates how airborne ultrasound generated by electric faults can be detected even when no abnormal temperatures occur, and how electric faults on high tension transmission and distribution lines can be isolated at distances of over 150'.

Predictive maintenance: who needs it?
Richard L. Harrison, Vibration analyst, Consolidated Diesel Company, Whitakers, North Carolina
Predictive maintenance combines vibration analysis, oil sample analysis, and IR thermography in order to warn of impending failure, so that a proactive approach can be used. This paper zeros in on the significance of IR thermography in the PdM program with some dramatic case studies.

Prediction of crack propagation in concrete elements, covered by advanced composite materials, using infrared thermography
Rita Hu, University of Glamorgan,, UK
How IR thermography may be used to predict crack propagation in reinforced concrete structures is explained in this paper, which also explores some of the potential benefits of this promising approach to early prediction of beam failure.

Use of infrared thermography as a standard in the quality assurance and quality control of masonry construction
Matthew J. Innocenzi & J. Eric Peterson, Whitlock Dalrymple Poston & Assoc, Inc., Manassas, Virginia
Architectural experts demonstrate how infrared thermography can be used in detecting the flaws which may occur in reinforced masonry wall construction, and review the advantages of using infrared thermography as part of a standard inspection or quality assurance program.

Finding termites with thermal imaging
Ken James, Director, Termicam, Australia.
The problem of building termite damage is increasing due to the banning of many environmentally unsafe chemicals. This paper demonstrates how IR thermal imaging offers an environmentally friendly way of detecting termites and helping to safeguard buildings.

Thermographic surveys involving rubber based cap-sheet membranes.
Kathryn M. Barker Knettel, American Infrared Testing & Consulting, St. Petersburg, Florida
An expert thermographer specializing in roofs and structures, reviews IR case studies of roof systems using rubber membrane cap-sheets and various insulation materials. Problems encountered in establishing scanning techniques and interpreting results are highlighted.

Using FEA-based heat transfer analysis to extend the scope of IR
Jack M. Kleinfeld, P.E, .Kleinfeld Technical Services, Inc., The Bronx, New York
This paper introduces Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Examples will be presented that demonstrate how IR and FEA can be combined to improve the use of IR and to make the thermographer more useful, more efficient, and more effective..

Applying IR Thermography to ensure passenger comfort in automotive design
Maurice Lee, Thermographic Consultant, Leicestershire, UK and Herb Kaplan, Honeyhill Technical Company, Norwalk, CT
Case histories are reviewed in this paper, which describes the application of an infrared imaging radiometer to thermal design verification of three challenging aspects of passenger comfort in a contemporary motor vehicle: windshield design, airflow patterns and airflow measurements. .

Important measurements that support IR surveys in substations
Ken Leonard, Carolina Power & Light, Robert Madding and Gary Orlove, ITC, FLIR, Boston
Load (current), wind speed and connection resistance are very important values that strongly affect the apparent severity of a problem discovered during an IR scan. This paper tells you how to make these measurements safely using inexpensive instrumentation that is currently available.

How to guarantee your failure as an infrared thermographer
Ronald Lucier, ITC, FLIR Boston
IR thermographers can fall into two categories-heroes or goats. This paper highlights ten common activities that, if not properly addressed, can lead a thermographer down the path to failure. By recognizing and avoiding these pitfalls the path to success will be much clearer.

Oil circuit breaker (OCB) thermography
Robert Madding, ITC, FLIR Boston, David Ayers, TXU and Jon Giesecke, EPRI Solutions
This paper presents some OCB thermography data and examines problem severity using the watt loss calculation software developed by Dr. Madding and presented at InfraMation 2001. Post mortem photos of an OCB's internals also lend strong validation to the calculation and the calculation software.

The role of building sciences in predictive maintenance programs
Phillip C. McMullan, TSI Thermo-Scan Inspections, Carmel, Indiana
As building sciences have matured and infrared cameras have improved, the use of nondestructive infrared imaging to examine the building envelope for potential mold causing water leaks provides the opportunity to expand the role of predictive maintenance in facilities. This paper will detail the procedures of non-destructive evaluation on a variety of buildings and report the findings of these inspections.

Thermography for computer room inspections
Curt A. Nesset, 3M Company, St. Paul, Minnesota
The application of infrared thermography to the predictive maintenance inspection of computer room equipment is reviewed. Several cost avoidance case histories are presented where the early detection of loose and defective connectors averted emergency shutdowns.

What's your IQ (Insulation Quality)?
Dan Ninedorf, Specialized Camera Sales & Service, LLC,
This paper reviews the multidisciplinary approach to non-contact insulation quality determination using the combination of IR thermography, ultrasound and corona imaging cameras. Several case histories are presented

Solution-oriented asset reliability for thermographers
Terrance O'Hanlon, publisher Reliabilityweb.com, Fort Myers, Florida
This paper outlines a human approach to Action-Oriented Solutions for a maintenance operation. Each method is defined, explained and illustrated. By the end of this presentation, we will have exposed participants to a huge selection of strategies.

Using infrared thermography on offshore platform equipment
Albert Amedee Ohliger, Chevron-Texaco Inc. Bellaire, Texas
A pilot IR survey was done to define how IR could be used on the unique equipment installation of offshore platforms. This paper reports on the survey, on the prediction of a high payback to performing surveys of offshore platforms and on some unique opportunities for the thermographer.

Infrared inspections of electric substations: the importance of developing a plan
James Dan Roark, Knoxville Utilities Board, Knoxville, Tennessee
As you enter an electric substation, it becomes evident that an IR inspection plan has to be developed-a defined plan is absolutely necessary to assure no equipment is overlooked. This paper reviews KUB's plan and offers some general guidelines for developing a customized plan.

Holistic predictive engineering
Angus Robertson, Capital PdM, Essex, UK
A modern "holistic" approach to predictive engineering is introduced, combining thermal imaging, vibration analysis, power monitoring, oil analysis, acoustic analysis, BMS dilapidation reports and energy audits. Several examples are cited.

Infrared inspection viewing ports
Martin Robinson, Capital PdM, Essex, UK
This paper explains the benefits and limitations of infrared transmitting viewing ports in inspecting areas otherwise inaccessible to IR instruments. Topics included in the discussions are window materials, safety code restrictions, viewing angle limitations and transmission losses.

Thermal characterization of substation class metal-oxide varistor (MOV) surge arresters.
David Rueger, EPRI Solutions, Lenox, Massachusetts
An overview of the thermal characteristics of station class (MOV) surge arresters is presented in this paper. Indirect thermal measurements of external arrester surfaces are compared to power dissipation levels determined by traditional voltage and leakage current measurements.

Nondestructive testing of building envelope systems using infrared thermography
John Snell, Snell Infrared, Montpelier, Vermont
The numerous applications for infrared thermography currently being used to inspect building envelopes are reviewed. These include conduction and air leakage, moisture intrusion and the degradation of roofs and facades. Examples are given for each application and the basic conditions required discussed.

Infrared applications everywhere!
Greg Stockton, Stockton Infrared Services
Infrared thermographers see the world as a big radiator, with eyes nobody else has. Getting paid to walk around and look at things with an IR camera is a dream come true. To the interested, inquisitive, infrared thermographer, applications seem endless. This paper focuses on myriad great applications for this dynamic technology.

Five uncommon component anomalies
Richard Strmiska, Sumter Electric Cooperative, Inc, Sumterville, Florida.
IR surveys offer the option of a scheduled maintenance repair time instead of sudden failure. This paper reports on five examples in which the exact cause of thermal variants were diagnosed by Sumter Electric and corrected, thus avoiding costly outages resulting from equipment failure.

Infrared diagnostics of substation line fuse problems
Jeff Sullivan, Mississippi Power Company, Hattiesburg, MS
This paper reviews Mississippi Power's predictive maintenance program, specifically regarding the IR scanning of substation line fuses. It explains various typical findings related to line fuses and explains the diagnostics of the problems found during infrared scanning.

Troubleshooting paper machine problems through thermal imaging
Robin Thon, Albany International Corp., Cornell, Wisconsin and Ron Lucier, ITC, FLIR Boston
Four case studies are cited, where problems are diagnosed through thermography, These include flawed coater marks, plugged or worn nozzles, moisture profile non-uniformity and vacuum system pulsation, representing but a few of the opportunities to troubleshoot the paper process.

The application of thermography for the on-line quality inspection of materials and processes
Michael L. Watkins, Exponent Scientific, Chester, VA
This paper reviews a real-world example to illustrate the successful development of a thermal nondestructive evaluation (TNDE) protocol to detect and quantify a unique material flaw. TNDE was used to investigate the quality of an alloy material during the manufacturing process.

Lessons learned: using low cost, uncooled infrared cameras for the rapid liquid level assessment of chemical UXO and storage vessels
Kevin L. Young, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho
This paper describes the lessons learned, problems encountered and success rates associated with using low-cost infrared cameras to look for liquid levels within one-ton shipping containers and individual chemical munitions.